The Mallas of the Valley
Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia.

Throne of the Malla King of Patan/Lalitpur.

Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia.

KUKRI HISTORY & HERITAGE.


Pre-Gorkhali Invasion -

The Malla Kings of the Kathmandu Valley.

A Himalayan civilization between the Emperor of China & Rulers of India.  

  


Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia.
Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia.
Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia.
Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.

King Jaya Prakash MallaRaja of Kantipur (Kathmandu)

wikipedia

King Yoganarendra Malla column (ca. 1700) in

Patan Durbar Square

Watercolour of a distant view of Kathmandu in Nepal, by Henry Ambrose Oldfield (1822-1871), dated April 1853.

The Mallas of Kathmandu Valley.


King Prithvi Narayan Shah´s focus was to conquer the three Malla Kings of the Valley, a firmly established dynasty going back to the 13th century which had developed a high urbanised culture not found anywhere else in the Himalayas. The wealth and art of the Valley was well known across the region, the Mallas focused on trade over war, diplomacy over aggresion and in many ways were the opposite of the Gorkhali dynasty. Why did the Shah King want to conquer the Valley and how did conquering Kathmandu Valley influence the Shah dynasty? Some of these questions we will explored here. 


The Kathmandu Valley with its three Kingdoms, (Kantipur/Kathmandu, Lalitpur/Patan and Bhadgaon/Bhaktapur) stood at the centre of the lucrative Trans-Himalayan trade, dating back to the Licchavi era (approx. 400 to 1200 CE) or perhaps even earlier. The three Malla Kings of the Valley enjoyed wealth far beyond any other ruler in the Himalayas, plenty of farmable lands and a well established trade network. Over centuries they developed an advanced culture where various arts, philosophy and religious scholarship was encouraged over conflicts with neighbouring states. Focusing on Kathmandu was based on that it had everything the King of Gorkha needed and wanted. Farmland for his military, trade for his Kingdom, wealth for Royal House. 



The valley was a fertile area which allowed for good agricultural production, a centre of trade and culture which enjoyed the security of peace and grew wealthy over the centuries. Prior to the Gorkhali invasion it is known that small business communities of Armenian, Chinese, Irani, Kashmiri traders resided, along with a few Europeans (mainly Catholic monks), people from various places in India and Tibet lived in the Valley. Various ethnic groups from Nepal had also found a home here offering their services in various capacity. The Valley was thus a multi-cultural hub with an international touch that worked under the Newari system. A Stone inscription at Kathmandu Durbar Square, prior to the Gorkhali invasion lists among others English, French, Greek, Latin, Persian, Tibetan besides languages of the area such as Newari (Nepali bhasa), Khas kura (Gorkhali), and Sanskrit.   

 

It was from the Trans-Himalayan trade the rulers of Kathmandu Valley grew rich, beyond agricultural production capacity, and became an object of conquest for Prithvi Narayan Shah in the 18th century. This trade included the right to mint coins for Tibet against payments in silver and gold. Early on the value of the coin was based on its weight and purity but this was over time changed so that purity went down, resulting in greater profits for the Kingdom who minted the coins, while the mark of the King was made more important as a value marker. The Kingdoms of the Valley quickly developed with vast amounts of wealth backed up by silver and gold deposits from Tibet. 


Ari Dev was the last Licchavi King and first Malla King, taking the title “Malla” and establishing himself as Ari Malla and first king the Malla era (ca. 1201–1779 CE). The earlier Licchavi period saw its strength around 600 - 800 CE followed by a period of instability and struggles for power over the Valley. The word “Malla” means wrestler in Sanskrit and indicates a person of strength and power which may be associated with a consolidation of power within the valley under the first Malla King in the early 13th century replacing a period of power struggles and uncertainty. A new era started with Ari Malla and the Valley was to grow and become the principal seat of political, cultural, and economic power in the Himalayas over the next centuries while other areas were to diminish in importance. The Malla “civilization” lasted until the Gorkhali invasion in 1768 and ended with King Ranjit Malla of Bhaktapur left in 1769.

 


A mixture of Buddhism and Hinduism infused with local Shamanism made up the religious practises of the people at large. Nepal has as far as history can tell us always had several cultures, faiths and languages co-existing. To think that current religious practices have been the norm would be a mistake as the religious landscape of Nepal changed drastically over the 16th to 19th century and Hinduism became the main religion. The early Mallas and Khas kings were largely Buddhists and when Hinduism was adopted it was deeply infused with Tantra, which also served as a bridge between the two religions and did not directly push away other more tribal belief systems.

Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.
Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.
Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.
Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.

Watercolour of the Durbar Square at Kathmandu, by Henry Ambrose Oldfield, c.1852. View of part of the Durbar, with adjacent temples, & large figure of Bhairab. 

Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.

Pencil, wash and watercolour drawing of the five-tiered Nyatapola temple at Bhaktapur, part of the Lawrence collection created by an anonymous artist, c. 1843-1846. The Nyatapola temple is unusual for the region as it has five storeys and stands on a five tiered base. It was built in about 1700 in the reign of King Bhupatrinda Malla (1694-1722).

Trade through the Himalayas connected south to India and changes could be seen and felt as empires, powers and rulers rose and fell. The Islamic invasion of India led to Sultan Shams-ud-din of Bengal in 1345-46 to raid the Kathmandu Valley in which he plundered Buddhist and Hindu temples, confirming the role of the Valleys importance and as a source of wealth, known far beyond its borders. Raids may also have occurred in the Khasa kingdoms of who´s history is still being researched and little known in comparison to the Mallas and other dynasties based around the Kathmandu Valley.

 

Through maintaining power by settling internal disputes of the nobility, focusing on trade and inclusion the Malla dynasty in the end of the 14th century reached a high point unlike their contemporaries whom had fallen due to internal power struggles. The Valley grew its stability and wealth from both internal events and influenced by those of Tibet and the Gangetic plains as the trade route connected to both areas. Any major change would affect the trade, the lifelife of wealth and development. Large building projects in Tibet resulted in a golden era financed by the Trans Himalayan trade. Administrative, civil and religious laws were codified, temples and buildings were built while the smaller towns expanded in size. The modern foundation of what was to become the three cities of the Valley can be found. The three main cities of the valley were:


  1. Kantipur/ Kathmandu was the area to the north,
  2. Lalitpur/ Patan was to the south (Kirtipur to the west but ruled by the King of Lalitpur),
  3. Bhadgaon/ Bhaktapur to the east.
Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.

Watercolour drawing with pencil and ink of the palace at Bhaktapur, part of the Lawrence collection created by an anonymous artist, c. 1843-1846. 

Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.

Watercolour of the west end of the Durbar, or Royal Palace, at Bhaktapur. Temple of Krishna (on the left) built A.D. 1586. Smaller temple (on the right) dedicated to Narayn, built A.D. 1435. Painting by Henry Ambrose Oldfield, dated March 1853. 


At the end of the 15th century the sons of King Yaksha Malla (reigned ca. 1428-82) were given the right to rule these towns. Unlike their neighbours whom spent resources on internal power struggles the brothers seemed largely to have had a harmonious relationship. Nonetheless alliances to dominate one brother over another was from time to time sought as well as protection of the trade routes were a main concern. At one time the Malla Kingdom of the Valley bordered Tibet to the north, the Sen Kingdoms in the south and to around 80 km´s from the east and the west. By the time the three sons took over power was back to the city-states and surrounding areas only. There was safety which included safe drinking water in the cities, agriculture was good and a modest trade with Tibet, there was not to many reasons to venture out. Occational skrimishes betwen the rulers over the trade route would take place as a natural result but no larger wars, battles or revolutions are noted. 


Irregular forces, similar to militias were raised from men of the area the route went through as most areas were dominated by a certain ethnic group who held local power of that area and paid for their services by the Royal court. Trade flourished as long as the three kingdoms did not fight, and the trade routes were secure. These three town had emerged over time and became the three principal seats of power during the early 16th century and could only be matched by powers across the Himalayas or after crossing the jungles of Terai. 

 

 

Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.

Watercolour of the Durbar at Bhaktapur by Henry Ambrose Oldfield, dated 1854. 

Bhaktapur, the 'City of Devotees' is 11 km east of Kathmandu and 10 km north-east of Patan and is the youngest of the three former city-states of the Kathmandu Valley. Bhaktapur was founded in the 9th century and rose to prominence under the Malla dynasty.

Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.

Watercolour of the Krishna temple in Lalitpur (Patan) by Henry Ambrose Oldfield, c.1855. Lalitpur, the 'City of Beauty' was founded in the 2nd century by the Kirats. The Krishna Mandir Temple, in the centre (grey building) was built in 1637 by King Siddhi Narasingh Malla.

Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.

Trans-Himalayan Trade –

 

Two separate routes via the Valley connected north to the roof of the World in Tibet and further into China from the Gangetic plains in India. For centuries traders with caravans would cross the jungles in the Terai lowlands during winter to avoid Malaria and then wait and re-load in Kathmandu for the routes north to open up over the summer, once the snow was gone. There

was one route through the domains of the King of Bhaktapur, via Banepa, leading towards Kodari and the Kuti pass into Tibet.

Another route was through Kathmandu following the route below Nuwakot through the Lang tang mountains, via Rasuwa to the Kyirong valley and into the highlands of Tibet. To the south the trade route continued via Sindhuli and/or through Lalitpur to the south.

Yaks and mountain goats were needed for northern travel while for southern donkeys, water buffalos/ox and human porters provided transport. Kathmandu Valley offered a suitable climate, safety and needed “connections” through its trading community whom played a strong role in Tibet’s trade, developing into the Lhasa Newars.

 

Another 10 or so routes connected Nepal to Tibet and China but the route through the Valley was the safest and easiest. Against the odds of the caravans was the dangerous terrain and harsh nature, weather conditions, armed bandits and various diseases. The caravans transported from Nepal and India various edibles (rice, barley, grains, spices, tea, sugar, etc), cloth, metal, religious articles, art work, medicinal herbs and brought back silk, gold, salt (from the Tibetan lakes), yak tails, wool and much else of high value while also serving as a communication channel between cities in India - Kathmandu- Lhasa- Beijing, news did not travel fast due to the harsh conditions of the route, but travel it did.

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King Jayasthiti Malla, ruler of whole Kathmandu valley from c.1382 - 1395. Wikipedia. 

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Parthibendra Malla, son of Pratap Malla, ruled Kathmandu from 1680–1687 CE.

wikiwand

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Bhupatindra Malla, king of Bhaktapur from 1696–1722. 

Wikipedia. 

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Bhaskar Malla of Kathmandu (r. 1700-1714) dressed in Mughal fashion.

Wikipedia. 

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Watercolour of Thappatalli, the Residence of Maharaja Jang Bahadur at Kathmandu by H.A. Oldfield, 1850s. 

King, Courts & Royalty –

 

The Kings of the Valley were in their own right supported by a largely Buddhist population, the Newari community have developed their own form of Buddhism, though many believes of Hinduism was incorporated from early on. In many ways Hinduism legitimized royalty more than Buddhism did and over time the idea of the King being an incarnation of Vishnu emerged. This was later to be adopted by the Shah dynasty after conquering the Valley as well as the title “Shree panch (5)”. A normal person held only one “shree”,i.e "Shree man/mati", a ruler often two or three and only the most powerful king(s) five. “Shree” is an honorific title of honour and respect.  


The (royal) court system of the Malla kings were far more complex than any other royal house in the hills. There was wealth, scholars with knowledge, a large nobility whom shared a high degree of loyalty attached to the court. There was stability to develop, not only territorial gains (which was often the focus of neighbouring royal houses) which allowed the Mallas to develop a davanced Palace culture. 

The Malla kings based their rule and legitimacy on being the preserver and protector of righteous moral order (Dharma) and gave large donations and implemented the buildings of various Buddhist and Hindu religious shrines. Temples, buildings and palaces were ornately decorated by the skilled craftsmen of the Valley, resulted among others in the three Durbar Squares of the Valley, which are now part of UNESCO´s World Heritage sites. The buildings of the three Durbar Squares (Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur) are jewels of medieval art and architecture, clear examples of the artistic skill and advanced “civilisation” of the Malla Kings of the Valley. The three royal families began to accept Taleju(Maheshwari) Bhawani, a manifestation of the Hindu goddess Parvati, Lord Shiva´s consort as their personal deity and large temples were built for goddess Taleju from the 14th century onward probably influenced by South Indian Brahmins employed in the Valley. The three cities have their own Taleju temples built between the 16th and 17th Century, Bhaktapur in 1553, Kathmandu in 1564 and Patan in 1667. The Living goddess Kumari is closely associated to Taleju.

 

 

The king had no set limit for his domain, whose borders were determined only by the power of his army, statecraft and favour of the divine powers. The Mallas rarely took large military expeditions outside the Valley and if a military expedition was launched it was often to secure the passage of trade an seek alliances.  Their wealth also allowed them to pay opponents to stay away while occasional battles are recorded in history. The Shah dynasty on the other hand seems to have seen this as a right for further expansion and used this in their own favour to expand the domains and thus make Nepal. 

 

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Watercolour of the Nyatapola Temple at Bhaktapur, by Henry Ambrose Oldfield, dated c.1854.

It was built in about 1700 in the reign of King Bhupatrinda Malla (1694-1722).

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Watercolour of the Bhairava Temple at Bhaktapur, by Henry Ambrose Oldfield, dated April 1852.

Bhairav is an incarnation of Shiva.

The first temple on this site was built in the early 17th century, an extra storey was added King Bhupatindra Malla in 1717 and a third level was added when the temple was rebuilt after the 1934 earthquake.

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Watercolour of part of the Mahabouddha temple at Lalitpur (Patan), by Henry Ambrose Oldfield, c. 1850-1863. 

The Mahabouddha temple, the Temple of the Thousand Buddhas, is believed to have been originally built in 1585.

Contacts with the Emperor of China & the Mughal Empire -

 

Several of the Malla kings were known as great poets and as patrons of arts, commissioned great works, magnificent temples, statues and palaces. Most of the finest monuments and buildings of the Kathmandu Valley date to the Malla period. Craftsmen and artists from the Valley were known for being hired to do work far away already in the 12th and 13th century, in Tibet and in China, among others for Kublai Khan, the grandson of Ghengis Khan. The most notable of the Newari artists is a person named Araniko (1245–1306), whom is better known in China then in Nepal. In the 1960´s a highway connecting Kathmandu to the Tibetan border, along the old trade route was built with Chinese assistance and named the Arniko Highway.

 

Born in Kathmandu and already as a child known for his amazing skills, he was hired for a monastery project along with many other craftsmen from the Valley. In the 1260´s he completed the golden stupa of the Sakya Monastery outside Shigatse. He then continued to Beijing and took up work there and for the Court of the Kublai Khan in Shangdu. He is known to have designed and constructed among others the White Stupa at the Miaoying Temple in Beijing in the 1280´s which was the largest structure of its time in China. During his 25 years before passing away he completed three stupas, nine Buddhist temples, two Confucian shrines, one Daoist temple and innumerable images and objects used in and out of the court. Araniko was also known as a painter and it is believed he executed a number of portraits for the imperial family which today are at the National Palace Museum in Taiwan. At the Court in Shangdu he created new symbols of the emperor’s sovereignty and drew from his native cultural heritage whereby the Wheel of Law (Dharma chakra) was introduced and used to lead imperial processions. The image of Garuda was also introduced, the celestial bird and “vehicle” of Lord Vishnu, that was displayed over the imperial throne. Araniko is often thought of as the person who introduced the Pagoda style temple to China and from there spreading to Korea and Japan.

 

The early contacts between the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) and later Emperors of China is not very well known till Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) when the relationship became much closer. The Qing dynasty sent emissaries to the Mallas of the Valley and conferred them with various titles and the honour was reciprocated as well, which until the early 20th century confused the British in India, if Nepal was a Chinese tributary kingdom or not. The tradition to send each other’s emissaries and gifts was to continue till WW1 whereby various Shah Kings and Rana Maharajahs over the 19th and early 20th century was given prestigious Chinese titles and gift. Following the Sino-Nepalese wars of 1788-1792 Nepal had to send emissaries to the Court of Beijing every four years. Over the Rana dynasty these missions were heavily funded by Opium being carried along and sold in China.  

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A 1972 stamp from Nepal depicting Araniko. 

istampgallery

An artist’s rendering of the White Dagoba (stupa) built by Arniko, that still stands at the Miao Ying temple in Beijing.

Silk and ink portrait of Kublai Khan, supposedly by Arniko, now in a Taipei museum. It was drawn just after the Khan’s death in 1294. Kublai Khan was the grandson of Genghis Khan and ruled over Mongolia, parts of China and Korea.

Nepali times

Contacts to the various dynasties and rulers of India were also maintained and specially of note is the Mughal Empire. Not only were cordial honours given but the Mughal court influenced the courts of the Hill kings and the Mallas. The word “Shah” being a Persian title for emperor, king, prince, lord was used by the Mughals and spread into the hills along with other words. The common Nepali name “Bahadur” is also Persian in origin (meaning brave, martial, courage) and can be seen being used in Nepal from the late 18th century (i.e. King Rana Bahadur) and gaining a strong hold among the common people by the late 19th century, after the death of Maharaja Jung Bahadur Rana. Partly also due to the high number of Gurkhas/Gorkhas serving in the colonial Indian Army which kept using many Mughal titles. A bravery medal for example in Nepali is called “Bahaduri”.

 

Mughal style dress became fashionable as court attire, paintings and art started to take in Mughal influenced images and motives. Various Malla kings are seen more often in Mughal style dress, images similar to angels and other motives which is more commonly used in Mughal art starts to blend with the traditional style. The Mughal and Qing empires never exercised direct control over any area that became Nepal, but indirectly influenced its institutional and cultural life.

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Watercolour of a Buddhist temple at Kirang (Kerung/Gyirong) at the Nepal-Tibet (china) border by Henry Ambrose Oldfield, dated May 1855. 'Ghyong' is a Temple as distinguished from a 'Goompa' which is a monastery, or Lamaseri. 

"This country is like a gourd between two rocks. Maintain a treaty of friendship with the emperor of China. Keep also a treaty of friendship with the emperor of the southern sea (the Company). He has taken the plains."

       

           -King Pritihvi Narayan Shah, ca 1774 AD.

Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy. nepali times.

Watercolour of the Golden Gate in the Durbar at Bhaktapur, by Henry Ambrose Oldfield, dated c.1854. 


The Golden Gateway, seen in this view, is covered with gilt-copper carvings; it was erected by King Ranjit Malla (1722-1769) and dedicated to the goddess Taleju.  "In each city the largest and most important building is the royal palace or darbar. It is situated in a central part of the city, and opposite to its principal front there is an open irregular square, which allows free access to the palace, and round which temples of various kinds are clustered together...In Kathmandu, Patan and Bhatgaon, most of the principal temples are in the immediate vicinity of the darbar..."

Military –

 

One part of having a standing military was the high expenses it would incur on the treasury which only the Mallas could bear. As per Mughal style the Mallas started giving land grants to the armed forces as a form of payment, it could be earlier royal/state lands or newly conquered areas, to the men who served their rulers instead of a fixed income. This form of payment was a strong motivating factor in the Gorkhali ranks and partly one reason why King Prithvi Narayan Shah could raise a large army after his initial success against the smaller rulers surrounding the Valley. The higher up in the military hierarchy and the more important to the Kings success, the more was given.

 

The Mallas were never really known for their fighting skills but as scholars and patrons of the Arts and religion. They employed large number of mercenary troops which included besides men from the surrounding areas also groups of mercenaries specially from Mithila (current southern Nepal and Bihar), Orrisa, South India and may have included other groups which called India their home too. Maithili, the language of the Mithila region became a court language along with Sanskrit and Newari. Khas bhasa, the old form of Gorkhali which we now call Nepali was gaining a hold too as speakers of Khas bhasa also moved to the Valley. The border towards Tibet was guarded by Tamang groups and to the south various groups employed along the trade route.   

 

 

 Conquering the Valley meant a direct possibility to conquer an area far beyond any mans dreams of that time, the wealth of the Valley would finance military expeditions and diplomacy while a advanced culture would be partly erased, partly taken over and included as the Shah dynasty of Gorkhas own, Prithvi Narayan Shah went from being a hill Raja to the Maharajadhiraja...

 

Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.

Watercolour of the Dhunsar at Kathmandu , by Henry Ambrose Oldfield, dated March 1857.

"Near the south-western angle of the darbar is the little square now used as a fruit market, which is called Kathmandu Tol. The old building, Kathmandu, from which the city derives its name, is situated on its northern side; the old Dhunsar court of law, now deserted and in ruin, on its eastern; some fakir's houses on its south, and some old and half-ruined temples on its west. It is one of the most curious and characteristic places in the whole of the city."

Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.

Watercolour drawing of the image of Kala-Bhairava and the northern part of the old royal palace at Kathmandu, part of the Lawrence collection, by an anonymous artist working in the Nepalese school, c. 1843-1846.

'Temples at Khatmandu.' Bhairava is an incarnation of the god Shiva in his terrifying form of the 'Destroyer'. The Kala (black) Bhairava was found in a field during the reign of King Pratap Malla and was installed in its present position by the King, whose image, looking towards his private temple dedicated to the goddess Taleju, is represented on a gilt bronze pillar positioned in front of the god.

Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.
Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.
Heritage Knives, Kukri Khukuri History and Heritage, Nepal Gurkha Gorkha Military History. Malla kingdom, Pre Gorkha Gurkha Invasion, Conquest. Henry ambrose Oldfield, henry montgomery lawrence, british resident, surgeon, paintings, art, Research. semi-custom, knife maker, reproduction of antique weapons, utility, bushcraft, Malaya, Hong Kong, Brunei, Great Britain, United Kingdom, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, Commonwealth, Chindits, Victoria Cross, notes, blade, sword, battles, war, gorkhali, malla, ranjit, jaya prakash, yoganarendra, kantipur, bhatgaon, lalitpur, patan, trans-himalayan, trade, caravan, yak, lhasa newar, arniko, kublai khan, beijing, lhasa, shigatse, mathali, mercenary, throne, gold, durbar square, army, regiment, battalion, british, india, tibet, china, colonial, sino-nepal war, conquest of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, ochterlony, young, fraser, Gillespie, thapa, balbhadra, Bulbudder, kunwar, amar singh, thapa, jung bahadur rana, bir Narsingh kunwar, chandra Shumsher rana, maharaja, king, raja, tulwar, kora, axe, katar, chinese, mughal, indian, european, chandra shumsher, prithivi shah, prithvi, narayan, kaji, bhimshen thapa, bir, prime minister, jagat jung, shumsher, dev sjb rana, jit jung rana, jung, bahadur, abhiman singh basnyat, kunwor, book, article, kami, brahmin, thakuri, chettri, magar, gurung, tamang, kami, dalit, muslim, hindu, buddhist, Tibetan, art, work, traditional weapons, royal, Asian, Himalayas, ww1, ww2, world war, british empire, anglo,  war, Khalanga Nalapani, Jaithak, Sirmoor, Nusseree, Subathu, devi dutta, purano gorakh, sri nath, rifles, guns, London, traditional, Dravya shah, liglig kot, Lamjung, kirant, kirat, newar, Tibet, Himalayas, kilatools.com, ang khola, papu, purano, sirupate, Budhume, Bhojpure, CGAK, SGAK, International, IMA, Cache, bas pate, style, broad belly, army issue, historical, old, image, photo, chirra, Hanshee, Lambendh, curved, antiques, Gorakhnath, myth, legends, officer, high, quality, best of the best, spiral, Benjamin jundkins, John powell, research centre, resources, Nepali study, south Asian studies, institute, manufacturer, producer, exporter, export, travel, import, university, academia, embassy.

Artist info:

Dr. Henry Ambrose Oldfield (1822-1871) was a Surgeon attached to the British Residence (a early form of Embassy) and lived in Nepal from 1850-1863. During his time at the Residency he studied Nepal, specially its geography and religion. As an artist he caputred the Valley and Nepal through his art work; drawings and paintings and after his death his work was published in  "Sketches from Nipal, Vol. I and Vol. II" London: 1880. During the war with Tibet in 1855 he was given permission to accompany the troops to the border, as a close friend with Maharaja Jung Bahadur Rana, a most rare permission allowing him a unique view of Nepal of that time. His artwork is found at the British Library among other places. His book gives a good early account of Nepal and of tremendous value in understanding the past.


Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence (1806-1857), served as the British Resident in Nepal from 1843-45 (holding rank of Major) had earlier served in the Military (1st Anglo-Burmese War 1824, 1st Anglo-Afghan War 1838 and in the North West Frontier) and as a Civil Servant of the British East India Company which included being appointed Superintendent of Dehradun, Assistant Envoy in Lahore prior taking up duties in Kathmandu. He left Kathmandu to serve as Politcal Assistant in Lahore, Governor Generals agent in Rajputna and died fighting in the Siege of Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny of 1857 holding rank of Major-General. His legacy is survived by for example: Lawrence School, Sanawar (HP, India), Lawrence School, Lovedale (TN, India) and Lawrence College, Ghora Gali (Murree, Pakistan). There is also a memorial in Lucknow for him (his eldest son Alexander was created 1st Baronet Lawrence of Lucknow in 1858) as well as a statue in St.Pauls Church, London. He was a vivid writer and his years in Kathmandu gave him plenty of time to pursue his passion to write. 

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